Viotto Keylogger: Freemium Keylogger for the Skids

The PhishMe Research team recently received a campaign escalated by one or our analysts. We’ll explore the campaign delivery, malicious attachments, and analysis of the malicious attachments, and we’ll provide a simple method for extracting the credentials being used for this keylogger family’s data exfiltration.

Campaign

The PhishMe Triage platform allows SOC analysts to identify, analyze, and respond to email threats that have targeted their organization. For this particular campaign, the suspicious email had an ARJ archive attachment, which contained a Windows PE32 executable.

lureAlthough Windows OS does not natively open archive files with the ARJ extension, a number of third-party applications, such as 7zip, will be able to extract these rarely-used archives. The content of the archive is a single PE32 executable name “DOCUMENT-71956256377.pdf.exe” which is a packed Viotto Keylogger sample, intentionally named with a double extension to entice victims to click and execute the malware.

archive_screenshot

Malicious attachment contains executable.

Since this malware was written in VB6, we can decompile the unpacked, malicious binaries to verify our classification. By viewing the VB6 forms, we can see that the hidden Form1 contains the name of Viotto Keylogger:

decompiledforms

Decompiled VB6 forms.

Now that we have seen an example of how this malware propagates in the wild, let’s examine the family itself. When an analyst has access to a malware’s builder (an application that enables the easy customization of malware samples), we can save precious reverse engineering time by analyzing its capabilities and features to better understand how this malware behaves.

Builder

Most of the indicators that comprise a Viotto Keylogger infection can be set at build time when the actor creates the stub (the malware sample that infects a victim’s computer). In the public version 3.0.2 of the builder, the malicious actor can specify where the keylogger’s logs will be stored, the installation method for persistence, and the delivery method of the logs via SMTP and/or FTP. In the paid, private version of the builder, the actor is able to control even more settings, such as encrypting the Keylogger logs with RC4 with a hardcoded key and enabling a Screen Capture feature that periodically sends screenshots of the victim’s desktop back to the actor. Another feature included in both versions that is not highlighted in the builder’s options is the ability to capture all text copied to the victim’s clipboard.

mainscreen

VKL Builder’s main screen.

The storage location option for the keylogger log files can be set by the malicious actor at build time. They also have the ability to specify a custom log filename and to set hidden file attributes. The log files can be saved in the following locations on the infected machine’s disk:

  • Root (C:\)
  • Windows (C:\Windows)
  • System32 (C:\Windows\System32)
  • Program Files (C:\Program Files)
  • Application Path (copied where originally executed)
  • Temp (C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Local\Temp)
  • AppData (C:\Users\{username}\AppData\Roaming)
logfileoption

Options where keylogger logs will be stored.

Persistence

As described above, depending on the settings enabled during built time of the stub, the actor has the ability to enable infection persistence through reboots of the infected machine. The actor can also select the option to save a copy of the executable which has the same file system options as the log file storage locations. The copy of this executable can then be executed during Windows’ start up events for persistence through computer restarts. Although multiple instances of the stub can be launched by selecting any combination of startup entries, the stub ensures it’s the only process currently running by checking the mutex (a program object lock used to avoid multiple instances of the same malware from running). The default mutex is “ViottoLogger”; however, this setting can also be changed in the builder. The following startup registry keys are viable options:

  • Current User\Run (HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run)
  • Local Machine\Run (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run)
  • Winlogon\Shell (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Shell)
  • Winlogon\Userinit (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows NT\CurrentVersion\Winlogon\Userinit)
  • Explorer\Run (HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\policies\Explorer\Run)
persistenceoptions

Windows startup persistence options.

Keylogger Data Exfil

Viotto Keylogger is capable of sending the recorded keystrokes, clipboard contents, and screenshots to the perpetrator in an email (via SMTP) or to a file server (via FTP). The email option can be delivered to open relays that do not require authentication or to accounts that require authentication over SMTP using Transport Layer Security (TLS). By utilizing TLS, the account credentials and email contents will be encrypted in transit. Most of the VB6 code in this keylogger was copied from sources freely available on the internet, as indicated in the builder’s About screen:

builderabout

Extracting Exfil Credentials

Skids wishing to use this malware creator be forewarned: your email and FTP credentials can be easily obtained! Although most of these samples in the wild will be packed, a quick and easy way to extract the malware actor’s credentials being used for victim data exfiltration is by analyzing the application’s process memory. Analysts are not only able to extract this information on the same machine utilizing a program such as Process Hacker, but personally, I prefer keeping my memory analysis tools outside of the infected machine by analyzing full VM RAM dumps with either the Rekall or Volatility memory analysis frameworks. We can also extract the malware sample’s configuration, including any SMTP/ FTP exfil credentials, statically. The malware sample’s configuration is stored plaintext in the Resources section of the stub:

resourcedecom

The decompiled FindResource section loads the stub configuration.

The PhishMe Research team also wrote a Python script to extract the Viotto Keylogger configuration from an unpacked sample:

configextractor

Conclusion

The recent sighting of the freely-available Viotto Keylogger in the wild reminds us that cybercrime has a low barrier to entry and that tools built years ago continue to be used to exploit unsuspecting users. PhishMe Simulator trains and encourages users to recognize and report the type of email messages that are delivering this threat. The next step is to act on those reports, and PhishMe Triage enables your team to sift through all reports and quickly and efficiently act on the ones that pose a threat to your organization. Click here to learn more.

 

Related SHA256 Hashes
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 

Miscellaneous

Download the Viotto Keylogger yara rule or the configuration extractor.

 

The PhishMe Advantage – ROI

Return on Investment

Measuring the return on investment (ROI) from your PhishMe solution is simple and easy. The most obvious and significant impact is the dramatic reduction you will see in the overall risk of a phishing attack both getting past your perimeter protection and your skilled users but there are other ways to measure your investment:

Monetary ROI

Customers can realize monetary ROI from PhishMe by reducing their overall risk to phishing and other security threats. Adversaries have successfully employed phishing tactics to steal intellectual property, personally identifiable information, and other sensitive information that can harm an organization’s competitive advantage and reputation.

The costs of a data breach vary and can range from hundreds of thousands to billions of dollars. The costs of incident response and mitigation will be, at a minimum, a few hundred thousand to millions of dollars. While the loss of intellectual property and sensitive information can have a severe financial and legal impact on an organization.

PhishMe’s solutions lower the likelihood of users being susceptible to various security risks while also increasing your IT Security team’s ability to quickly and accurately identify and mitigate an attack in progress. PhishMe’s experience sending simulated phishing attacks to over 20 million unique users has shown that prior to training, organizations show a reduction in repeat “clicker” susceptibility to phishing of 95%.  Download our Phishing Susceptibility Report for the full details.

Time ROI

There is also the opportunity cost view of measuring the ROI from PhishMe. Specifically, this includes the amount of time and resources your IT organization must commit when responding to user reports of falling for phishing attacks, resetting passwords, slow computer performance caused by malware, and unwinding the damage caused by such incidents. The internal cost to identify, respond, triage and recover compromised systems can place an unbearable strain on the IT service organization. Most firms find that cutting the need for this effort by 50% to 80% results in significant savings of time, labor and energy, all of which can be focused on core business operations that can help your business grow.

PhishMe’s innovative training solutions will save your entire organization time and resources while increasing employee productivity. On average, PhishMe simulated training exercises conducted periodically takes 1/30th as much time as traditional computer-based training (CBT).

 

The (BEC) Song Remains the Same

I had a dream, a crazy dream, that we stopped responding to ridiculous email messages demanding that a wire be sent immediately.  Also in that dream, all the bad guys were caught and had to pay restitution and go to jail.

While that second part may never happen, there has been definite progress toward the dream goal and there are definite steps to take to ensure that you – and others in your company – do not fall victim to a BEC email.

Coordinated by the National Cyber-Forensics & Training Alliance (NCFTA), contact information and incident details are being swapped quickly in the business and financial communities, allowing wires to be successfully recalled from far-flung places, facilitating the identification of fraudster activity, and preventing additional victimizations.  However, the typical scenario involves the disappearance of money into the hands of criminals much faster than the victim realizes that they have made a grave mistake in acting upon a fraudulent email message.

The FBI has now released three major advisories* regarding the Business Email Compromise scam.  The below charts illustrate how the estimated number of victims and the estimated volume of dollar losses have increased dramatically with each Public Service Announcement.

chart-1

chart-2And, though the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) first noticed an uptick in related complaints in October 2013, the ruse has been a common one in Europe for even longer.  A fellow security researcher in France, where they call this ‘The President’s Scam’, has been closely tracking a certain group since 2011.

The most common sequence of events is that a C-level employee email address is either compromised or spoofed in order to send a convincing message to someone in the company with the authority to send a wire.  It appears that oftentimes the fraudsters have done their homework on who’s who also, gleaning names, titles, and even travel schedules of executives from social media accounts.  We have shared examples before; just over a year ago, PhishMe CTO, Aaron Higbee, described an attempt against PhishMe.

graphic-3

Also around this same time last year, Centrify CEO, Tom Kemp, detailed EIGHT different attempts against his company, which itself provides multi-factor authentication services.

Unfortunately, the number of victims continues to rise.  Think about it…every business is a potential victim; so, until everyone knows how to spot this scam, we will keep hearing more horror stories.

The following are some things to keep in mind when you review an email asking you to move money on behalf of your company:

  1. Is the message really from the person that it appears to be from? Review the headers carefully. What is the reply-to address? Was the message actually sent from a lookalike domain name, such as PHlSHME.com with the letter L in place of the letter I?
  1. Does the tone and writing style of the author match what you know of the purported sender of the message?
  1. Are you being asked to reply directly to the message, instead of crafting a new email message? Are you being pressured to keep the transaction to yourself for some reason? Does the email message have a strong sense of urgency?
  1. Is there a link to click or an attachment to open, supposedly containing the wire instructions? As part of this scam, wiring instructions are typically sent to the victim in a subsequent message, after they have initially hooked you into responding.  Usually they are in the body of the follow-up message, but sometimes they are in a PDF attachment.
  1. Don’t think that the receiving bank will necessarily be overseas. Money mules in the United States are operating domestic bank accounts, helping to launder the money while sometimes thinking they are performing a legitimate work-from-home service.
  1. Be willing to stand your ground when something seems ‘off’ about a request. Demand that you personally speak to the person requesting the urgent wire transfer.  When you save the company millions, the CEO will be glad you bugged her for a moment.

And below are some Action Items that you can take today to help prevent becoming the next victim:

  1. Enable two-factor authentication on your email account. If your email provider does not offer this, change providers.
  1. Establish a DMARC record on your company domain so that messages spoofing your real domain do not get delivered.
  1. Use different passwords for each online service; use a password manager if needed.
  1. Require dual approval and out-of-band authentication for all wires. Understand that wire transfers are one of the most risky transactions and usually cannot be recalled because they are designed to provide immediate access to and an irrevocable settlement of funds.
  1. The PhishMe Simulator/Reporter combination conditions your employees to spot and submit fraudulent email messages. Contact PhishMe to sign up for Simulator and Reporter so that you can start shoring up your first line of defense.

If you realize that you may have fallen for this scam, call your bank immediately.  Also call your local FBI office and ask for assistance (Find contact information here.) Even if you never wired the money, report the attempt by filing a complaint form with IC3 because this helps the NCFTA track and correlate attacks, improving the likelihood of an eventual prosecution.

*Links to the full FBI PSAs:

Behavioral Conditioning, Not Awareness, Is the Answer to Phishing

BY AARON HIGBEE AND SCOTT GREAUX

You don’t stop phishing attacks by raising user awareness. A recent study conducted by a German university confirms what we at PhishMe have known all along: Focusing on awareness isn’t the point. The real solution is behavioral conditioning.

The study, conducted by Friedrich-Alexander University (FAU) of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany, used 1,700 students to simulate spear phishing attacks. An August 31 Ars Technica article published preliminary results of the study showing at least 50% of students clicked simulated phishes, even though they understood the risks.

With its headline, “So Much for Counter-phishing Training: Half of People Click Anything Sent to Them,” the article appears to suggest training is pointless. But we see it differently. While the article confirms what our own research has revealed – that awareness isn’t the problem – the proper conclusion to draw isn’t that training is futile. PhishMe tends to agree with this sentiment and encourages organizations to focus on conditioning their employees to identify and report security risks.

We focus our training on conditioning human behavior, and the results speak for themselves. Our customers spend 22 seconds reviewing phishing education, and yet their susceptibility to phishing decreases significantly. Why? It’s the experience we put them through that changes behavior. Even when they are aware of the risks, as studies show, they are susceptible to opening email from unknown users and clicking suspicious links. But conditioned through the real-world examples we provide in our simulations, users are much less likely to click.

Enterprise Relevance

The FAU study focused on students, who were sent emails and Facebook messages with links purporting to be for photos from a New Year’s Eve party held a week before the study. “Links sent resolved to a webpage with the message ‘access denied,’ but the site logged the clicks by each student.”

It’s dangerous to use research results conducted on a student population to Enterprise workers. We have several problems with the approach as described. For starters, it wasn’t created by people in the trenches who understand real-world threats, but by academics in a computer science department. We already know the bait used by the study’s authors works on students, as well as consumers, but is far less effective with enterprise users. Yet, readers of the Ars Technica article are concluding the study’s results apply to enterprise environments.

We know that because we’ve started to get messages with their reactions. So we feel an obligation to point out the study didn’t use a realistic scenario, from an enterprise point of view. Real-world enterprise phishes are more likely to be emails pretending to be files from a scanner, a document with a job evaluation, or a message that someone has signed for a package addressed to the user.

There’s also a difference of perspective between students and enterprise users. Students, whose primary experience with computing revolves around mobile devices such as tablets and smartphones, don’t worry about cyber risks. Clicking a link from a smartphone isn’t going to compromise the device because such devices are nearly impervious to attacks. But click the link from a computer, and the story is quite different.

It also appears the FAU study focused only on clicking links, but phishing threats aren’t limited to one vector. Others include data entry, password credentials, clicking attachments, and email conversations that don’t involve links or attachments. Replicating some of these vectors in a real-world simulation is a bigger challenge than the method used by the study.

Focus on Reporting

A PhishMe-commissioned study found 94% of office workers know what phishing is and the risk it presents to organizations. The study also found that 94% of office workers know how to report suspicious emails in their organization. And that’s where the focus of training needs to be – reporting. When users are conditioned to report suspicious email, even if they do so after already clicking on it – maybe they had a lapse – the reporting is still valuable because it helps your security operations teams.

Learning to identify suspicious emails through conditioning is far more effective than general efforts to raise awareness. PhishMe simulator provides customers with templates that include the exact content used by threat actors.  By deriving content from our Phishing Intelligence platform we provide experiences that are relevant to enterprise users.   This method allows customers to condition users to spot potential phishes, avoid interacting with them, and report them to their security teams.

While we appreciate the FAU’s study’s confirmation of what our own research has shown about awareness, we fear it may lead enterprises to make decisions based on the erroneous conclusion that training doesn’t matter. This perspective could lead to the compromise of a network with disastrous results. To avoid such an outcome, we at PhishMe stand ready to work with any academic institution or researcher that could benefit from our experience in the trenches to produce meaningful research about phishing.

Cyber Crime: The Unreported Offense

On July 22, 2016 the UK’s Office for National Statistics released crime details for the year ending March 2016.  For the first time, this data included information about fraud and computer misuse offenses, which was compiled in the National Crime Survey for the first time in October 2015. While the police recorded 4.5 million offenses from March 2015 to March 2016, the survey indicates there were likely 3.8 million fraud instances and 2 million computer misuse instances during that same year, with the vast majority of these crimes being unreported to law enforcement.  The report has caused for a new call for additional cyber crime reporting at all levels.  In the UK, consumers and businesses alike are encouraged to submit suspicious activities and cases of loss to ActionFraud: the National Fraud & Cyber Crime Reporting Center.  ActionFraud also offers a Business Reporting Tool for bulk submissions by businesses of both fraud and scam emails.*

Earlier in July, the UK’s National Crime Agency also released their report “Cyber Crime Assessment 2016.”   The primary point made by the NCA report is the “need for a stronger law enforcement and business partnership to fight cyber crime.”

NCA Cyber Crime Assessment 2016The NCA report called special attention to the sophisticated abilities of international crime groups, making them “the most competent and dangerous cyber criminals targeting UK businesses.”  These groups are behind the most sophisticated financial crimes malware.

“This malware is a substantial source of financial crime in the UK, with three variants: DRIDEX, NEVERQUEST and DYRE /DYREZA, appearing frequently and responsible for many hundreds of thousands of individual crimes in 2015.”

The report also highlights the danger of ransomware and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks.

While arrests were made in the DRIDEX case, the same botnet is now the leading source of the Locky ransomware family, the focus of more than 50 PhishMe Intelligence reports in the past month alone!

Statements made in March by Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe, the police commissioner of the Metropolitan Police of London, received mixed reviews when he said that banks that refunded their customers after cyber incidents were “rewarding them for bad behavior” instead of teaching them to be safer online.  The GCHQ suggested that 80% of consumer-facing cyber crime could be stopped just by choosing safer passwords and keeping one’s systems updated with current security patches.

The NCA report points out, however, that it isn’t just consumers who are not pulling their weight in the fight against cyber crime.  Businesses also have a responsibility to do more.   The report urges corporate board of directors to make sure that their information technology teams are not merely checking the boxes required of compliance regulations, but taking an active role in assisting the cause by ensuring that their businesses are reporting cyber crime incidents.  As widely seen in the United States, one may be compliant with PCI, Sarbanes Oxley, HIPAA, and other regulatory standards yet still be extremely vulnerable to the type of sophisticated cyber attacks presented by these sophisticated international crime groups.Moving beyond Box-Ticking cyber security

“Directors also have an important role in addressing the under-reporting of cyber crime which continues to obscure the full understanding of, and hence responses to, cyber crime in the UK. In particular, we urge businesses to report when they are victims of cyber crime and to share more intelligence, both with law enforcement and with each other.”

– NCA Strategic Cyber Industry Group

Dridex, NeverQuest, Dyre, Ransomware – Meet PhishMe Reporter & Triage

At PhishMe, we are intimately familiar with the prevalence of the malware families discussed in the UK government’s reports.  We provide detailed intelligence reports to our customers about all of those malware families, which are among the most common email-based threats that we encounter as we scrub through millions of each emails each day to identify the greatest threats and get human-driven analysis about those threats back out to our customers.

We support the security strategy and defense posture recommended by the NCA Strategic Cyber Industry Group.  Our industry must move from reactive, check-box security mentality to a proactive method of gathering and analyzing security incident reporting.  PhishMe customers not only have the ability for every employee to become part of the solution to “under-reporting” with a click of the mouse on the “Report Phishing” button, but also to share that information back to PhishMe to allow us to provide indicators that help protect ALL customers and to help inform our law enforcement partners.

PhishMe Reporter

The PhishMe Reporter Button

PhishMe Triage provides a single place for all of those employee reports to be integrated, if your business would like to answer the call to do more information sharing about these top malicious threats. By providing a dashboard-driven interface to all employee-reported malicious emails, the security team can quickly spot the most dangerous trends, confirm the facts, and report to law enforcement, as recommended in the UK’s National Crime Agency report.

In addition, PhishMe Intelligence customers received over 2,500 malware email campaign reports in addition to more than 600,000 individual phishing reports that can be used as an intelligence feed to strengthen your corporate defenses against these malicious actors.

We look forward to partnering with our UK-customers, and all of our customers, who choose to take an active stance in the fight against cyber crime by answering the call for increased vigilance and reporting.

 

* – U.S. businesses are encouraged to report cyber crime and fraud to the FBI’s Internet Crime & Complaint Center, IC3.gov.

 

RockLoader Delivers New Bart Encryption Ransomware

Another ransomware tool has been added to the ever-growing encryption ransomware market with the introduction of the Bart encryption ransomware. Named by its creators in its ransom payment interface as well as in the extension given to its encrypted files, the Bart encryption ransomware has leveraged some distinctive mechanisms for delivery during its early deployments. Furthermore, this ransomware shares some interface elements that evoke the same look and feel used by the Locky encryption ransomware ransom payment interface. In many ways the Bart encryption ransomware is a very mainstream encryption ransomware in both the files it targets for encryption (a full list of these file extensions is included at the end of this post) as well as its demand for a sizable Bitcoin ransom. However, a number of elements related to this encryption ransomware are noteworthy when viewed through the lens of recent developments in the phishing threat landscape.

PhishMe Ranked #1 ‘Best Place to Work’ by Washington Business Journal

PhishMe is proud to announce it has been honored as the best large company to work for in the Washington D.C area, following a prestigious annual employee engagement survey. The Washington Business Journal ranked PhishMe #1 in the ‘large companies’ category, the first time the organization has been honored with the title, having surveyed 85 local firms.